Methods of teaching the Kazakh language on the basis of “The general education frequency dictionary of the Kazakh language”
The essence of this technique consists in offering the pupils first of all to learn active words, which are used most often in the Kazakh language, gradually increasing their vocabulary stock. Thus, the learning process will first deal with the most commonly used words and then with those that are used less often.
Stages of the methodology implementation
Creation of the frequency dictionary, which will provide reliable information concerning the area of active vocabulary, i.e. the most frequently used words in modern Kazakh language, as well as the frequency of each individual word. The dictionary is developed with the use of the mathematical method. Thus, with the help of the dictionary, the current active vocabulary of the language can be defined on the scientific basis, rather than on the personal experience of authors of textbooks as it was earlier.
The lexico-grammatical minimum (LGM) will be created on the basis of the frequency dictionary – a document that explains to compilers of textbooks the principles of correctness and succession of studying certain words;
LGM is distributed among publishers and textbook authors in order to update the educational base in accordance with the new methodology.
“We were collecting the textual base, imagining a Russian-speaking pupil who studies in a Kazakhstan school and lives in this environment, dealing with it every day. We figured to ourselves the Kazakh speech on television and radio which he most often listens to and mass media in Kazakh which he reads,” – says Anar Muratovna.
For compiling the frequency dictionary, the pupil’s school discourse covering all the language styles which he deals with was taken (the textual database of the dictionary consists of 7 million words):
– 2.5 million words refer to texts of the scientific style (textbooks on the Kazakh language, literature and history in Russian-language schools, textbooks on natural sciences for primary classes in the Kazakh language);
– 746 thousand words refer to texts of the belles-lettres style;
– 465 thousand words refer to texts of colloquial style (oral everyday communication);
– 69 thousand words refer to texts of official and business style (simple official documents and the Constitution);
– 669 thousand words refer to texts of journalistic style (texts of children’s magazines, newspapers, television programs, texts of social and humanitarian character from the Kazakh periodical press “Egemen Kazakhstan”, “Ana Tili”);
– 2,658,000 words – of a mixed style.
“The general education frequency dictionary of the Kazakh language” was compiled on the basis of all these texts. In general, it consists of more than 36,000 vocabulary units with indication of their frequency and coverage of Kazakh texts.